The documents on this page are related to recent ESR satellite sea surface salinity validation efforts. NASA’s salinity webpage maintains a publication list and archived meeting presentations.



Kao, Hsun-Ying, Gary S .E. Lagerloef, Tong Lee, Oleg Melnichenko, Thomas Meissner, and Peter Hacker. 2018. Assessment of Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity, Remote Sensing ,10, no. 9: 1341.

Le Vine, D., Dinnat, E., Meissner, T., Wentz, F., Kao, H., Lagerloef, G. and Lee, T. (2018). Status of Aquarius and Salinity Continuity, Remote Sens., 10 (10), 1585.

Guimbard, S., Reul, N., Sabia, R., Herlédan, S., Khoury Hanna, Z., Piollé, J.-F., Paul, F., Lee, T., Schanze, J., Bingham, F., Le Vine, D., Vinogradova-Shiffer, N., Mecklenburg, S., Scipal, K., and Laur, H. (2021). The Salinity Pilot-Mission Exploitation Platform (Pi-MEP): A Hub for Validation and Exploitation of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Data, Remote Sens., 13, 4600.



Schanze, Julian J., David M. LeVine, Emmanuel P. Dinnat, Hsun‐Ying Kao. (2020). Comparing Satellite Salinity Retrievals with InSitu Measurements: A Recommendation for Aquarius and SMAP(Version 1). Zenodo.



Hsun-Ying Kao, Jesse Anderson,  Julian Schanze, Susan Howard, and Oleg Menichenko.  SVDS for SMAP RSS V5.3 and comparisons with SMAP RSS V5.0, preliminary evaluation.  Presented at the OSST meeting, Oct 2023.   PDF version: SVDS_SMAPV53_PRELIMINARY_EVALUATION


Validation Reports:

Kao, Hsun-Ying, Anderson, Jesse E., Schanze, Julian J., Howard, Susan. 2023. NASA/RSS SMAP Salinity Version 5.0 Validation Analysis. Zenodo.

Kao, Hsun-Ying, Schanze, J., Lagerloef, G. 2019. NASA/RSS SMAP Salinity Version 4.0 Validation Analysis

Aquarius Salinity Validation Analysis (Data Version 5.0). AQ-014-PS-0016. 28 February 2018. Hsun-Ying Kao, Gary Lagerloef, Tony Lee, Oleg Melnichenko, Peter Hacker.  Document accessed 2018-05-03 at

Aquarius Salinity Validation Analysis (Data Version 3.0 and 4.0). AQ-014-PS-0016. 2 August 2015. Gary Lagerloef, Hsun-Ying Kao, Thomas Meissner, Jorge Vazquez.

Aquarius Salinity Validation Analysis (Data Version 2.0). AQ-014-PS-0016. 18 February 2012. Gary Lagerloef, Hsun-Ying Kao, Oleg Melnichenko, Peter Hacker, Erick Hackert, Yi Chao, Kyle Hilburn, Thomas Meissner, Simon Yueh, Liang Hong, Tony Lee.