Please find below a list of known reference related to salinity gradients. Should you have any publication you would like to add on this page, please send us the info at hkao (at) 



Lagerloef, G., et al. (2008). The Aquarius/SAC‐D mission: Designed to meet the salinity remote sensing challenge, Oceanography21(1), 68–81. 


RSS SMAP SSS V4.0 validated release (release notes, file and data formats, description of the algorithm, ATBD, validation). 

Meissner, T., F.J. Wentz, and D.M. Le Vine, 2018, The Salinity Retrieval Algorithms for the NASA Aquarius Version 5 and SMAP Version 3 Releases. 


Boutin, J., N. Martin, N. Kolodziejczyk, and G. Reverdin, 2016, Interannual anomalies of SMOS sea surface salinity, Remote Sensing of Environment, 

Boutin J., Vergely J.L., Marchand S., D’Amico F., Hasson A., Kolodziejczyk Nicolas, Reul Nicolas, Reverdin G., Vialard J. (2018). New SMOS Sea Surface Salinity with reduced systematic errors and improved variability. Remote Sensing of Environment, 214, 115-134. Publisher’s official version: , Open Access version : 

Kolodziejczyk, N., J. Boutin, J.-L. Vergely, S. Marchand, N. Martin, and G. Reverdin Mitigation of systematic errors in SMOS sea surface salinity, 2016, Remote Sensing of Environment, 


From Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Holte, J., Talley, L. D., Gilson, J., and Roemmich, D. (2017), An Argo mixed layer climatology and database, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 5618– 5626, 

From International Pacific Research Center 


Gridding algorithm 

Lilly, J., and G. Lagerloef (2008), Aquarius Level 3 Processing Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Goddard Space Flight Center.   Available at ftp://podaac‐

Scientific Research 

Salinity fronts 

Vazquez-Cuervo, J., Gomez-Valdes, J., and Bouali, M. (2020). Comparison of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Salinity Gradients Using the Saildrone California/Baja and North Atlantic Gulf Stream Deployments, Remote Sens., 12(11), 1839, 

Kao, H.‐Y., and Lagerloef, G. S. E. (2015). Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific OceanJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 1096– 1106, 

Yu, L. (2015). Sea‐surface salinity fronts and associated salinity‐minimum zones in the tropical oceanJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 4205– 4225,